Nathan Hammer

Associate Professor of Chemistry & Biochemistry

Nathan Hammer Associate Professor

Nathan Hammer, Associate Professor

180 Coulter Hall
662-915-3989  |


Honors B.S. in Chemistry, University of Tennessee, 1998
Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, University of Tennessee, 2003
Postdoctoral Researcher, Yale University, 2003-2005
Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Massachusetts, 2005-2007
Assistant Professor, University of Mississippi, 2007-present
National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award in 2010

Director, Ole Miss Physical Chemistry Summer Research Program and NSF REU

Chair (2010, 2011 and 2015) and Chair-Elect (2010 and 2014) of the Ole Miss Local Section of the American Chemical Society

National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award
Ole Miss local section of the American Chemical Society Service Award
University of Mississippi Faculty Research Fellow

Spectroscopy, energy and charge transfer, physical properties and structure of single molecules and small clusters of molecules and ions


When molecules interact noncovalently through hydrogen bonding or other electrostatic interactions, pi-pi interactions, or Van der Waals forces, their physical properties change. Although intermolecular interactions have received much attention recently at the ensemble level, the study of individual dimers, trimers and larger clusters (as well as binary and higher level interactions with other species) to reveal the intimate interactions leading to the bulk observables remains for the most part elusive. Here, we study the physical properties of interacting molecules in environments ranging from the single molecule to the bulk. Our spectroscopic capabilities include high resolution Raman spectroscopy of bulk materials, the study of size-selected clusters and aggregates in the gas phase using a mass spectrometer, and the use of single molecule techniques such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and other laser-based spectroscopies to study single interacting molecular architectures. Such studies help answer long-standing questions involving the effects of intermolecular interactions on biologically relevant systems and also in developing devices incorporating conjugated organic molecules, to name a few examples. These studies will also allow for the tailoring of new nanoscale building blocks that would have physical properties dependent upon the number of molecules present.

For a complete list of the 70+ publications visit and click Publications, click here for a full cv, or click here to go to Dr. Hammer’s GoogleScholar page.

CPC Cover PCCP Cover jpcafh_v117i026.indd jpcafh_v115i024.indd JPCB_Cover_2006_hr AA_cover_hr

2016   2015   2014   2013   2012   2011   2010   2009   2008   2007   2006   2005   2004   2003   2002   2001   CV



S. C. Sutton, W. E. Cleland, Jr., N. I. Hammer, “A Synthetic and Spectroscopic Study of the Free Radical Chlorine Dioxide,” The Journal of Chemical Education, in revision.

J. Wang, J. Waters, P. Kung, S. Kim, J. T. Kelly, L. E. McNamara, N. I. Hammer, A. Gupta, and S. Pan, “A Facile Electrochemical Reduction Method for Improving Photocatalytic Performance of α-Fe2O3 Photoanode for Solar Water Splitting,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, in revision.

A. J. Huckaba, A. Yella, L. E. McNamara, A. E. Steen, J. S. Murphy, C. A. Carpenter, G. D. Puneky, N. I. Hammer, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and J. H. Delcamp, “Molecular Design Principles of Near-Infrared Absorbing and Emitting Indolizine Dyes,” Chemistry – A European Journal, 22, 15536-15542 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/chem.201603165

J. T. Kelly, A. K. McClellan, L. V. Joe, A. M. Wright, L. T. Lloyd, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer, “Competition between Hydrophilic and Argyrophilic Interactions in Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS),” ChemPhysChem, 17, 2782-2786 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201600678 (Featured on Inside Cover)

S. Ananthakrishnan, J. Strain, N. N. Sreeramulu, A. Mitul, L. E. McNamara, A. Iefanova, N. I. Hammer, Q. Qiao, and H. Rathnayake, “A Novel Donor-Donor Polymeric Dyad of P3HT-block-Oligo(anthracene-9,10-diyl): Synthesis, Solid-State Packing, and Electronic Properties,” Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 54, 3032-3045 (2016). DOI: 10.1002/pola.28189

N. I. Hammer, S. Sutton, J. Delcamp, and J. D. Graham,   “Photocatalytic Water Splitting and Carbon Dioxide Reduction,” Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation, Springer, 2nd Edition, 2016.

P. Brogdon, L. E. McNamara, A. Peddapuram, N. I. Hammer, and J. H. Delcamp, “Toward Tightly Bound Carboxylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes for DSCs: Relative TiO2 Binding Strengths of Benzoic Acid, Cyanoacrylic Acid, and Conjugated Double Carboxylic Acid Anchoring Dyes,” Synthetic Metals (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.synthmet.2016.03.031

J. Lu, K. Cuellar, N. I. Hammer, S. Jo, A. Gryczke, K. Kolter, N. Langley, M. A. Repka, “Preparation and Solid-state Characterization of Felodipine-Soluplus® Amorphous Solid Dispersions,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 42, 485–496  (2016). DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2015.1104347

L. E. McNamara, N. Liyanage, A. Peddapuram, J. S. Murphy, J. H. Delcamp, and N. I. Hammer, “Donor-Acceptor-Donor Thienopyrazines via Pd-Catalyzed C-H Activation as NIR Fluorescent Materials,” Journal of Organic Chemistry, 81, 32–42 (2016). DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.5b01958

J. T. Kelly, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, S. Lyapustina, M. M. Nilles, S. Xu, J. D. Graham, T. S. Tschumper, K. H. Bowen, and N. I. Hammer, “The Onset of Electron-Induced Proton-Transfer in Hydrated Azabenzene Cluster Anions,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18, 704-712 (2016). (Featured on Cover) DOI: 10.1039/C5CP02746B


J. T. Kelly, J. A. Maner, and N. I. Hammer, “Recent Advancements in Chemical Physics,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 119, 12909–12910 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b12096

A. F. DeBlase, C. Wolke, G. H. Weddle, K. Archer, K. Jordan, J. T. Kelly, G. S. Tschumper, N. I. Hammer, and M. A. Johnson, “Water network-mediated, electron-induced proton transfer in anionic [C5H5N·(H2O)n]¯ clusters,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, 143, 144305 (2015). DOI: 10.1063/1.4931928

J. Wilson, J. S. D. Williams, C. Petkovsek, P. Reves, J. Jurss, N. I. Hammer, G. Tschumper, and D. L. Watkins, “Synergistic Effects of Halogen Bond and pi-pi Interactions in Thiophene-based Building Blocks,” RSC Advances, 5, 82544-82548 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c5Ra16680b

G. E. Tyson, K. Tokmic, C. S. Oian, D. Rabinovich, H. U. Valle, T. K. Hollis, J. T. Kelly, K. A. Cuellar, L.E. McNamara, N. I. Hammer, C. E. Webster, A. G. Oliver, “Synthesis, Characterization, Photophysical Properties, and Catalytic Activity of a SCS bis(N-heterocyclic thione) (SCS-NHT) Pd Pincer Complex,” Dalton Transactions, 44, 14475 – 14482 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C4DT03324H

J. Bae, L. E. McNamara, M. A. Nael, F. Mahdi, R. J. Doerksen, G. L. Bidwell III, N. I. Hammer and S. Jo, “Nitroreductase‐triggered activation of a novel caged fluorescent probe obtained from methylene blue,” Chemical Communications, (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C5CC03824C

N. Vunnam, N. I. Hammer, and S. Pedigo, “Basic Residue at Position 14 is Not Required for Fast Assembly and Disassembly Kinetics in Neural Cadherin,” Biochemistry, 54, 836–843 (2015). DOI: 10.1021/bi5010415

F. Begum, J. Fergusona, K. McKenna, L. E. McNamara, N. I. Hammer, and H. Rathnayake, “Preparation of n-Type Semiconducting Polymer Nanoarrays by Covalent Synthesis Followed by Crystallization,” New Journal of Chemistry, 39, 2004-2010 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/C4NJ00968A

A. J. Huckaba, F. Giordano, L. E. McNamara, K. Dreux, N. I. Hammer, G. S. Tschumper, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. K. Nazeeruddi, and J. H. Delcamp, “Indolizine-Based Donors as Organic Sensitizer Compounds for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Advanced Energy Materials, 5, 201401629 (2015). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201401629


D. J. George and N. I. Hammer, “Studying the Binomial Distribution Using LabVIEW,” Journal of Chemical Education,92, 389–394 (2014). DOI: 10.1021/ed500684k (2014). DOI: 10.1021/ed500684k

R. N. Compton and N. I. Hammer, “Raman Under Liquid Nitrogen (RUN),” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 548, 012017 (2014). DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/548/1/012017

E. R. Frey, A. Sygula, N. I. Hammer, “Particle in a Disk: A Spectroscopic and Computational Laboratory Exercise Studying the Nanomolecular Building Block Corannulene,” Journal of Chemical Education, 91, 2186-2190 (2014). DOI: 10.1021/ed4005062

J. T. Kelly, S. Xu, J. Graham, J. M. Nilles, D. Radisic, A. M. Buonaugurio, K. H. Bowen, Jr., N. I. Hammer, and G. S. Tschumper, “Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Computational Study of Hydrated Pyrimidine Anions,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A,118, 11901–11907 (2014). DOI: 10.1021/jp504724v (2014). DOI: 10.1021/jp504724v

L. Xu, V. R. Manda, L. E. McNamara, M. P. Jahan, H. Rathnayake, and N. I. Hammer, “Covalent Synthesis of Perylenediimide-Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoribbons and Their Electronic Properties,” RCS Advances, 4, 30172-30179 (2014). DOI: 10.1039/C4RA03260H

D. N. Reinemann, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer, “Characterizing the B-P Stretching Vibration in Phosphorous Substituted Phosphine Boranes,” ChemPhysChem, 15, 1867-1871 (2014). DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201400036

K. A. Cuellar, K. L. Munroe, D. H. Magers, and N. I. Hammer, “Noncovalent Interactions in Micro-solvated Networks of Trimethylamine N-oxide,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 118, 449-459 (2014). DOI: 10.1021/jp408659



A. M. Wright, A. A. Howard, J. C. Howard, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer, “Charge Transfer and Blue Shifting of Vibrational Frequencies in a Hydrogen Bond Acceptor,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 117, 5435-5446 (2013). (cover article) DOI: 10.1021/jp401642b

A. Huckaba, B. Cao, T. K. Hollis, H. Valle, J. Kelly, N. I. Hammer, and A. Oliver, “Platinum CCC-NHC Benzimidazolyl Pincer Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, Photostability, and Theoretical Investigations of a Blue-Green Emitter,” Dalton Transactions, 42, 8820-8826 (2013). DOI: 10.1039/c3dt50438g

H. Rathnayakea, N. Wright, A. Patel, J. Binion, L. E. McNamara, D. J. Scardino, and N. I. Hammer, “Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(3-Hexylthiophene)-Functionalized Siloxane Nanoparticles,” Nanoscale, 5, 3212-3215 (2013). DOI: 10.1039/C3NR34249B



D. J. Scardino, R. Kota, D. L. Mattern, and N. I. Hammer, “Single Molecule Spectroscopic Studies of Two Organic Rectifiers,” Chemical Physics Letters, 550, 138-145 (2012).

W.-Y. Chen, G. Shi, A. K. Hailey, E. S. T. Tsai, N. I. Hammer, and Z. Wu, “Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Organic Compounds Using A Green Photocatalyst: An Undergraduate Research Experiment,” The Chemical Educator, 17, 166-171 (2012).

H. Rathnayake, J. Binion, A. McKee, D. J. Scardino, and N. I. Hammer, “Perylenediimide Functionalized Bridged-Siloxane Nanoparticles for Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics,” Nanoscale, 4, 4631-4640 (2012).

X. Zhang, A. M. Wright, N. J. DeYonker, T. K. Hollis, N. I. Hammer, C. E. Webster, and E. Valente “Synthesis, Air-stability, Photo-bleaching, and DFT Modeling of Blue Light-Emitting Platinum CCC-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Pincer Complexes,” Organometallics, 31, 1664-1672 (2012).

J. D. Graham and N. I. Hammer,   “Photocatalytic Water Splitting and Carbon Dioxide Reduction,” Handbook of Climate Change Mitigation, Springer, 2012.



J. C. Howard, N. I. Hammer, and G. S. Tschumper, “Structures, Energetics and Vibrational Frequency Shifts of Hydrated Pyrimidine,” ChemPhysChem, 12, 3262-3273 (2011). DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201100457

K. L. Munroe, D. H. Magers, and N. I. Hammer, “Raman Spectroscopic Signatures of Noncovalent Interactions Between Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and Water,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 115, 7699-7707 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/jp203840w

D. N. Reinemann, A. M. Wright, J. D. Wolfe, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer, “Vibrational Spectroscopy of N-Methyliminodiacetic Acid(MIDA)-Protected Boronate Ester: Assignment of the B-N Dative Bond Stretching Frequency,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 115, 6426-6431 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/jp112016j

D. J. Scardino, A. A. Howard, M. D. McDowell, and N. I. Hammer, “Raman Spectroscopy as the Method of Detection for Constructing a Binary Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagram,” Journal of Chemical Education, 88, 1162-1165 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ed100016g

Q. Zhao, J. Wang, J. L. Freeman, M. Murphy-Jolly, A. M. Wright, D. J. Scardino, N. I. Hammer, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, “Syntheses, and Optical, Fluorescence and Nonlinear Optical Characterization of Phosphine-Substituted Terthiophenes,” Inorganic Chemistry, 50, 2015-2027 (2011). DOI: 10.1021/ic101624y

A. M. Wright, L. V. Joe, A. A. Howard, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer, “Spectroscopic and Computational Insight into Weak Noncovalent Interactions in Crystalline Pyrimidine,” Chemical Physics Letters, 501, 319-323 (2011). DOI:10.1016/j.cplett.2010.11.046

D. J. Scardino, M. McDowell, J. D. Graham, and N. I. Hammer, “The Multiphoton Ionization Spectrum of Methyl Iodide Revisted: 1.67 – 2.2 eV Excitation,” Journal of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, 2, 93-98 (2011). DOI: 10.4208/jams.010511.011411a



A. A. Howard, G. S. Tschumper, and N. I. Hammer,  “Effects of Hydrogen Bonding on Vibrational Normal Modes of Pyrimidine,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 114, 6803-6810 (2010). DOI: 10.1021/jp101267w

G. S. Tschumper and N. I. Hammer, “Non-Covalent Interactions: Theory and Experiment,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132, 9512 (2010). DOI: 10.1021/ja104759m

M. McDowell, A. E. Wright and N. I. Hammer, “Semiconductor Nanocrystals Hybridized with Functional Ligands: New Composite Materials with Tunable Properties,” Materials, 3, 614-637 (2010). DOI: 10.3390/ma3010614

S. N. Murthy, A. B. Nair, N. I. Hammer, S. R. Kiran Vaka, and A. E. Wright, “Dermatokinetics of Nanoparticles (25 nm),” International Journal of Innovative Pharmaceutical Research, 1 (2), 37-43 (2010)



A. Muraoka, Y. Inokuchi, N. I. Hammer, J.-W. Shin, M. A. Johnson, and T. Nagata, “Structural Evolution of the [(CO2)n(H2O)]- Cluster Anions: Quantifying the Effect of Hydration on the Excess Charge Accommodation Motif,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 113, 8942-8948 (2009). DOI: 106 3/1.2827475

M. D. Barnes, R. H. Paradise, E. Swain, D. Venkataraman, and N. I. Hammer, “Comment on Limits on Fluorescence Detected Circular Dichroism of Single Helicene Molecules,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 113, 9757-9758 (2009). DOI: 10.1021/jp903598t


J. R. Roscioli, N. I. Hammer, M. A. Johnson, K. Diri and K. D. Jordan, “Exploring the correlation between network structure and electron binding energy in the (H2O)-7 cluster through isomer photoselected vibrational predissociation spectroscopy and ab initio calculations: Addressing complexity beyond types I-III,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 128, 104314 (2008). DOI: 10.1063/1.2827475



M. Y. Odoi, N. I. Hammer, K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick and M. D. Barnes,  “Fluorescence lifetimes and correlated photon statistics from single CdSe/oligo-(phenylene vinylene) composite nanostructures,” Nano Letters, 9, 2769 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/nl0713068

K. T. Early, K. D. McCarthy, N. I. Hammer, M. Y. Odoi, R. Tangirala, T. Emrick and M. D. Barnes, “Blinking suppression and intensity recurrences in single CdSe-oligo(phenylene vinylene) nanostructures: experiment and kinetic model,” Nanotechnology, 18, 424027 (2007). DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/18/42/424027

N. I. Hammer, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Quantum dots coordinated with conjugated organic ligands: new nanomaterials with novel photophysics,” Nanoscale Research Letters, 2, 282 (2007). (Invited Review) DOI: 10.1007/s11671-007-9062-8

M. Y. Odoi, N. I. Hammer, H. P. Rathnayake, P. M. Lahti, and M. D. Barnes, “Single Molecule Studies of a Model Fluorenone,” ChemPhysChem, 8, 1481 (2007). DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200700133

H. P. Rathnayake, A. Cirpan, F. E. Karasz, M. Y. Odoi, N. I. Hammer, M. D. Barnes, P. M. Lahti, “Luminescence of Molecular and Block Copolymeric 2,7-Bis(phenylethenyl)-fluorenones; Identifying Green-band Emitter Sites in a Fluorene-Based Luminophore,” Chemistry of Materials, 19, 3265 (2007). DOI: 10.1021/cm070552h


J. R. Roscioli, N. I. Hammer, and M. A. Johnson, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Water Cluster Anions, (H2O)3-24- in the HOH Bending Region: Persistence of the Double H-Bond Acceptor (AA) Water Molecule in the Excess Electron Binding Site of the Class I Isomers,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 110, 7517 (2006). (Letter) DOI: 10.1021/jp062029g

N. I. Hammer, K. T. Early, M. Y. Odoi, K. Sill, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes,  “Quantum Dot/Polymer Composites for Quantum Informatics and Sensor Applications,” Journal of Intelligence Community Research and Development (2006).

R. Hassey, E. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, “Probing the Chiroptical Response of a Single Molecule,” Science, 314, 1437 (2006). DOI: 10.1126/science.1134231

N. I. Hammer, K. T. Early, K. Sill, M. Y. Odoi, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Coverage-mediated suppression of blinking in solid state quantum dot-conjugated organic composite nanostructures,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 110, 14167 (2006). (Cover Article) DOI: 10.1021/jp0620645f

M. Y. Odoi, N. I. Hammer, K. Sill, T. Emrick, and M. D. Barnes, “Observation of enhanced energy transfer in individual quantum dot-oligophenylene vinylene nanostructures,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 128, 3506 (2006). (Communication) DOI: 10.1021/ja058429j



N. I. Hammer, J. R. Roscioli, J. C. Bopp, J. M. Headrick, and M. A. Johnson, “Vibrational predissociation spectroscopy of the (H2O)-6-21 clusters in the OH stretching region: Evolution of the excess electron binding signature into the intermediate cluster size regime,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 123, 244311 (2005). DOI: 10.1063/1.2134701

N. I. Hammer, J. R. Roscioli, M. A. Johnson, E. M. Myshakin, and K. D. Jordan, “Infrared Spectrum and Structural Assignment of the Water Trimer Anion,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 109, 11526 (2005). DOI: 10.1021/jp053769c

E. G. Diken, N. I. Hammer, M. A. Johnson, R. A. Christie, and K. D. Jordan, “Mid infrared characterization of the NH4+(H2O)n clusters in the neighborhood of the n = 20 magic number,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 123, 164309 (2005). DOI: 10.1063/1.2074487

N. I. Hammer, J. R. Roscioli, and M. A. Johnson, “Identification of two distinct electron binding motifs in the anionic water clusters: A vibrational spectroscopic study of the (H2O)-6 isomers,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 109, 7896 (2005). (Cover Article) DOI: 10.1021/jp052144b

J. M. Headrick, E. G. Diken, R. S. Walters, N. I. Hammer, R. A. Christie, J, Cui, E. M. Myshakin, M. A. Duncan, M. A. Johnson, and K. D. Jordan, “Spectral signatures of hydrated proton vibrations in water clusters,” Science, 308, 1765 (2005). DOI:10.1126/science.1113094

N. I. Hammer, E. G. Diken, J. R. Roscioli, E. M. Myshakin, K. D. Jordan, A. B. McCoy, X. Huang, S. Carter, J. M. Bowman, and M. A. Johnson, “The vibrational predissociation spectra of the H5O2+•RGn (RG = Ar, Ne) clusters: Correlation of the solvent perturbations in the free OH and shared proton transitions of the Zundel ion,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 122, 244301 (2005). DOI:10.1063/1.1927522

J.-W. Shin, N. I. Hammer, H. Schneider, A. GloB, J. M. Weber, and M. A. Johnson, “Infrared determination of core-ion switching in the (CO2)n- clusters from both the ion and solvent perspectives,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 109, 3146 (2005). DOI: 10.1021/jp050092k

W. D. Robertson, N. I. Hammer, J. E. Bartmess, K. Diri, K. D. Jordan, and R. N. Compton, “Negative Ions of Ethylene Sulfite,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 122, 204319 (2005). DOI: 10.1063/1.1913578

N. I. Hammer, S. G. Stepanian, L. Adamowicz, and R. N. Compton, “Isotope Effects in Dipole-Bound Anions of Acetone,” Physical Review Letters, 94, 153004, (2005). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.153004



N. I. Hammer, J.-W. Shin, J. M. Headrick, E. G. Diken, J. R. Roscioli, G. H. Weddle, and M. A. Johnson, “How do small water clusters bind an excess electron?,” Science, 306, 675 (2004). DOI: 10.1126/science.1102792

J.-W. Shin, N. I. Hammer, J. M. Headrick, and M. A. Johnson, “Preparation and photoelectron spectrum of the “missing” (H2O)4- cluster,” Chemical Physics Letters, 399, 675 (2004). DOI: 10.1016/j.cplett.2004.10.015

E. G. Diken, N. I. Hammer, and M. A. Johnson, “Preparation and photoelectron spectrum of the glycine molecular anion: Assignment to a dipole-bound electron species with a high-dipole moment, non-zwitterionic form of the neutral core,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 120, 9899, (2004). DOI: 10.1063/1.1755196

W. Shin, N. I. Hammer, E. G. Diken, M. A. Johnson, R. S. Walters, T. D. Jaeger, M. A. Duncan, R. A. Christie, and K. D. Jordan, “Infrared signature of structural motifs associated with the H+(H2O)n, n = 6-29, clusters,” Science, 304, 1137 (2004). DOI: 10.1126/science.1096466

E. A. Price, N. I. Hammer, and M. A. Johnson, “A cluster study of Cl2- microhydration: Size-dependent competition between symmetrical H-bonding to the anion and the formation of cyclic water networks in the Cl2-•1-5(H2O) series,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 108, 3910 (2004). DOI: 10.1021/jp031239f

C. Desfranois, Y. Bouteiller, J. P. Schermann, D. Radisic, S. T. Stokes, K. H. Bowen, N. I. Hammer, and R. N. Compton, “Long-range electron binding to quadrupolar molecules,” Physical Review Letters, 92, 083003 (2004). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.083003

N. I. Hammer, R. J. Hinde, K. Diri, K. D. Jordan, D. Radisic, K. H. Bowen, and R. N. Compton, “Dipole-Bound Anions of Highly Polar Molecules: Ethylene Carbonate and Vinylene Carbonate,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 120, 685 (2004). DOI: 10.1063/1.1629669



N. I. Hammer, K. Diri, K. D. Jordan, C. Desfranois, and R. N. Compton, “Dipole-Bound Anions of Carbonyl, Nitrile, and Sulfoxide Containing Molecules,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 119, 3650 (2003). DOI: 10.1063/1.1590959 Click here for experimental and calculated molecular properties

N. I. Hammer and R. N. Compton, “Effects of Electric Fields and Collisions on Highly Excited Rubidium Atoms,” European Physical Journal D, 26, 27 (2003). DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2003-00200-0



N. I. Hammer, F. Gao, R. M. Pagni, and R. N. Compton, “Charge Transfer Reactions between Chiral Rydberg Atoms and Chiral Molecules,” Journal of Chemical Physics, 117, 4299 (2002). DOI: 10.1063/1.1496760



R. N. Compton and N. I. Hammer, “Multipole-Bound Molecular Anions” in Advances in Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Volume 4, edited by N. Adams and L. Babcock, Elsevier Science, 2001, pp. 257-291.

N. I. Hammer and R. N. Compton, “Effects of dc Electric Fields on Multiphoton Ionization of Rubidium Atoms at Low and High Densities” in Tenth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy Proceedings, edited by J. Parks and J. Young, American Institute of Physics, 2001 pp. 145-153. DOI: 10.1063/1.1405596